These are some expert tips that can help amateur mountaineers and alpine climbers conquer cold conditions.
Being able to traverse the steep slopes to reach the summits has always been a dream of many mountain climbers. As a person who has reached the peak of different mountains, I can say that the feeling is indeed exhilarating and satisfying.
But then again, we all know that mountaineering isn't the simplest of all outdoor expeditions. In fact, it is the most technical and rigorous; do this pursuit with half-baked preparation, and you will never be able to reach the top. At the same time, the adventure relies heavily on the weather. It could get easier during the warm months. But during the cold, snowy season, things would be different.
Winter mountaineering, or winter climbing, is a challenging activity. It doesn't just require the right gear but the right kind of preparation, too. Your skills and ability to read the situations are crucial factors that could determine the overall success of your trip. And as you ascend farther from the sea level, you will realize that the more arduous things could become. And it is not just the low temperatures and thick layers of snow. The terrain itself can be a challenge itself.
Of course, I am not discouraging you from doing a winter climb. Aside from the satisfaction this adventure provides, it is also a way of preparing yourself to ascend mountains and summits where winter-like conditions exist all year round. Hence, to avoid various mountain climbing hazards during winter, I suggest that you follow the tips I listed below.
Winter climbing is an outdoor pursuit that requires heavy investment. And I am not just talking about money here (for the gear and equipment, of course). I also refer to the time required for training and the effort needed to get all the essentials covered before the big day.
Winter mountaineering is all about being protected from the harsh elements. This means that from head to toe, your body should be covered with clothing pieces that have insulation and weather resistance.
As a reminder, go with those winter climbing gear that has the right fit. If the fit is poor, you will never find comfort in those clothing pieces. Here is the list of essential winter mountaineering clothing.
Depending on the condition you are about to engage in, you might need to sacrifice your dexterity for comfort and protection. It's a necessary trade-off, but some outdoor clothing manufacturers were able to resolve this issue. For instance, some pants and jackets have articulated construction that enables you to flex your arms and legs conveniently.
Also, don't forget about the breathability and waterproofing of these items. As much as possible, go for those clothing pieces that strike the perfect balance between these two factors. Brands like Patagonia, REI, Marmot, Arc'teryx, and Mountain Hardwear are among those who can provide you with high-quality winter climbing clothing.
Aside from the clothing and layers you need to wear, it is important that you have the right winter climbing gear. These are the items and tools that you need to survive the potentially harsh conditions. And if things go south, some of these pieces of equipment could probably save your life.
As you can see, there are a lot of things that you need to bring for a winter climb. And this begs the question: isn't winter mountaineering expensive?
Well, the answer to that question is yes. As I've mentioned, this trip requires the utmost preparation. Among those things that you need to prepare are your clothing and gear. If you are a beginner, you will need to invest gradually in these items. Buy one stuff at a time so that the price will not overwhelm you.
Alternatively, you can also borrow items from other mountaineers. Renting is also an option. But if you have the means, I highly suggest that you buy your own climbing equipment. In this way, you can ensure that they are always in the best condition.
Not all the gear that I listed above will be needed in your next winter climbing adventure. Some of those are situational items, so it is recommended that you assess the terrain and weather to determine if a particular tool is needed.
For example, those spring-loaded cams are great for summit climbs during summer. However, they will not do any good in icy terrains or in conditions where the temperatures can drop below freezing point. Here, you would need tri-cams and stoppers since they can function regardless of how icy your path is. Passive protection is often more needed in a winter climb. But if the route has some rocky obstacles, just bring spare cams.
Most of these protective gear are needed when the terrain has risky portions that you need to traverse. If you don't think that you can handle these tensions yet, I suggest that you go with the easy routes first.
When it comes to winter climbing, the biggest danger that you could probably encounter are avalanches. Now, this is not the point that you have to be scared or back out. Instead, you simply need to be aware of the tell-tale signs that a big white splash could be coming your way.
As much as we want to tell you a thing or two about avalanches, the best way to learn about them is by enrolling in an avalanche crash course. Numerous platforms offer this kind of course, such as Avalanche.org.
At the same time, different avalanche-prone mountain ranges have data centers that provide forecasts as to whether or not there's a risk of an avalanche. An example would be the Alaska Avalanche Information Center and the Colorado Avalanche Information Center. For a comprehensive list of these avalanche information centers in the United States, just proceed to this link.
Essentially, an avalanche course will teach you how to climb during winter without triggering an avalanche. It will also teach you about the dangers of cornices, which is a common hazard while mountaineering in the snowy seasons.
Wind and snow build cornices along mountain ridgelines. These are heavy and unstable constructions that can cause avalanches. Snow and ice on the cornice can break off the ridge and hurl a lot of snow and ice down the mountain. This debris can cause a violent avalanche that endangers skiers, hikers, and anybody nearby.
If you are still new to winter climbing or mountaineering, then it is easy to get overwhelmed by the number of routes you can take. But believe it or not, only a few of them are beginner-friendly. As a starter, what you want is an expedition that works well with your skill level.
There's nothing to be ashamed of if you want to start on the easy routes. I mean, the best climbers out there started on the easiest paths. It is not the other way around.
I suggest that you choose non-technical terrains. These are routes that offer the same winter climate but don't pose too many risk factors (i.e., avalanches, rockfalls, and scary drops). Furthermore, go for those routes that have established trails already. In this way, the chances of getting lost will be minimal.
Of course, it would also be best if the chosen route is near your home. The closer it is to your abode, the less distance you need to travel. And that could make things convenient and less stressful on your path.
Go for those mountains that are properly managed. As much as possible, don't venture into those unchartered territories. Ask local guides, rangers, and land administrators about the details of the area so that you can have a good idea of what to expect during the trip.
If you are just training for winter climbing, there's no real need to spend several nights in the mountains. A day climb could be enough, especially for first-timers.
However, you should never exclude the fact that sleeping systems are integral for every winter climb. The higher the peak is, the more nights you are going to spend on the ascent. This means that you have to pack the right sleeping gear here.
Since we are talking about winter climbs, what you need are four-season tents and sleeping amenities. You should never bring three-season tents since they don't have the ability to handle harsh and unexpected elements. They couldn't bear heavy snow, strong winds, and even low temperatures.
Fortunately, there are single-wall, four-season tents available in the market. They are lightweight but have the qualities that are essential for a winter expedition. If you are camping on the base, double-wall tents are a viable option since they are good for dealing with condensation.
Insulated sleeping bags and sleeping pads are essential, too. They are non-negotiable amenities since you don't want to lose good hours of sleep because of extreme cold.
It is not easy to look for a guide or teacher for winter climbing or mountaineering. Believe me or not, those people are rare these days. But as much as possible, you should have someone that could help you understand the unwritten rules of this adventure--as well as the things that could only be learned through first-hand experience.
While it is true that I have listed the basics here, it is integral that someone can teach you the nitty-gritty aspect of the climb. They can guide you on the proper way of navigating through thick piles of snow, acclimatizing into high-altitude conditions, and even the process of selecting the right snacks for the trip.
So how do you even find a winter mountaineering guru? Well, this is a tricky question. But based on my experience, the first place to look would be your local mountaineering groups. With the advent of social media, you can search for these groups easily. Plus, it would really be great if someone could refer you to someone who is already an expert.
Ideally, look for a teacher that is not only willing to teach you but also climb with you. After all, practical experiences are the best form of mentoring.
Next, you should affiliate yourself with mountaineering or climbing groups. In the United States, there's such a thing as The American Alpine Club. It is a collective of enthusiasts and serious climbers. You might want to link yourself to these groups so that you can find some like-minded individuals who will be willing to mentor you.